I have to say that some of the most annoying production bugs I’ve encountered with AngularJS apps are the injection errors:
Unknown provider: tProvider <- t.
That error message is actually Angular trying to tell us that it doesn’t know where to inject
t from, yet of course my code doesn’t have an injectable dependency called
These errors almost never show up during development, but only after building the app for release. That’s because these problems are the result of minification, which usually isn’t setup to run during development (for easier debugging and faster build times).
In most online examples we’d simply write an injectable like so:
1 2 3
But, after minification Angular won’t be able to tell what to inject because argument names get mangled. That’s why Angular has its special injection annotations, e.g.:
These are of course a PITA to maintain, which is why I strongly recommend using an automatic took like babel-plugin-angularjs-annotate.
But even when using it, one can forgot to write the
'ngInject'; directive somewhere.
In those scenarios, you’d normally only understand that there’s a problem in production, which is too late (and if you’re testing properly, it just means you’re pushing bugs too late into your development process anyway).
The Solution: Strict Mode
Strict mode is a configuration of Angular’s
$injector, telling it not to accept injectables that aren’t annotated, even when running in development.
(Note, this should not be confused with ES5’s strict mode.)
You set it by adding the
ng-strict-di attribute to your
When you turn this switch on, AngularJS will throw an error whenever it encounters an injectable that’s missing proper annotations, even in development. This means you’ll get a clearer error that’s a lot easier to track down and at the right time. It does mean, though, that you should make sure to run your automatic annotator in development as well (which should be easy with babel-plugin-angularjs-annotate).
Switch strict mode on and save yourself some nasty debugging!
“Maintaining AngularJS feels like Cobol 🤷…”
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